FSTDs

EASA Qualified FSTDs – What Are They?

2022-01-03

Almost every future pilot uses at least one of the FSTD devices at some point in their training. The abbreviation stands for “flight simulation training devices.” It is an umbrella term for various equipment used to simulate flights during pilot training. The FSTD concept encompasses full flight simulators (FFSs), flight training devices (FTDs), flight navigation procedures trainers (FNPTs), and basic instrument training devices (BITDs).

Full Flight Simulator (FFS)

An FFS is the most widely used training device in pilot training and the most advanced and in terms of its design and functionality.

FFS training constitutes practicing in a highly innovative virtual environment for completing Type Rating, recurrent training and licence proficiency checks. Completely accurate replication of a type-specific cockpit (e.g., Airbus A320 or Boeing 737) with motion and sound systems, an instructor station, and an aircraft data package allow a trainee pilot to get a “feel of flying.” The visual systems provide minimum 180×40-degree view in satellite quality.

According to EASA and FAA classification, FFS levels are lettered A, B, C, and D, with level D being the most sophisticated and having the highest fidelity level (the extent to which it resembles the actual aircraft). The D-level simulators are also eligible for Zero Flight Time Training (ZFT), which refers to training on an aircraft type rating course (conversion to a new type of aircraft) conducted entirely in a simulator.

The FFSs are expensive – they can cost up to EUR 7-10 million. In 2019, the FFS segment accounted for more than 90% of the market share.

FFS cockpit

Flight Training Device (FTD)

An FTD is a flight training device with a grounded base (can be referred to as FBS – fixed-base simulator).

The key FTD’s distinctive characteristics are the absence of both a motion system.FTDs, similarly to FFSs, have different sophistication levels, which are marked by numbers instead of letters in this case. EASA recognizes FTD Level 1, FTD Level 2, and FTD Level 3 (helicopters only) training devices. As the number grows, so does the degree of complexity.

FTDs are often used to train standard operating procedures, checklist flow, aircraft systems, carry out MCC/JOC courses, and so on. Although an FTD cannot fully substitute an FFS for Type Rating, the recent EASA regulation changes authorize completion of part of a Type Rating program on FTDs, thus providing trainees with an opportunity to cut their expenditures. Training academies can also use an FTD in Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the ATPL or CPL program.

However, it is mandatory to switch to an FFS for certain types of courses. For example, FTDs are not suited for “upset prevention and recovery training” (UPRT) designed to build flight crew’s competencies of preventing and recovering from situations when an aircraft exceeds the standard parameters.

The purchase and operating costs of FTDs are much cheaper than those of FFSs. Typically, the acquisition price would be 0,7-1,5 million.

965 x 545 - FTD

Flight and navigation procedures trainer (FNPT)

Unlike flight simulators, FNPTs usually represent an airplane class but not a type (although sometimes they are manufactured with a specific type in mind) and have a fixed-base generic system.

FNPT I is the most basic equipment only representing the flight deck. In contrast, an FNPT II goes as far as to create the flight deck environment of a multi-engine airplane type or class with systems functioning the same as they do in the airplane. A visual system providing an out-of-the-flight deck view is incorporated. One more version – FNPT MCC – is used for performing Multi-Crew Coordination (MCC) training.

An FNPT can be used for IFR, ME, IR/MEP Rating, and PBN courses within the ATPL/CPL programs. Sometimes it is insignificant whether to use an FNPT I or an FNPT II. For example, having pretty graphics (supported by FNPT II) during the IR training is irrelevant; therefore, a more limited version is sufficient to achieve the same result.

This device can be further applied in training for pilot licence and periodic licence renewal examinations, instrument flight refresher and skill maintenance sessions, night flight training, etc.

FNPTs are usually more affordable than FTDs or FFSs.

965 x 545 - FNPT

FSTDs at BAA Training

BAA Training’s current in-house training equipment includes two FNPT II devices simulating Cessna 172N , Tecnam P2006T and Piper PA44 and the following list of FFSs:

  • Lithuania, Vilnius – 2 Airbus A320, Boeing 737NG and Boeing 737CL+ 2APT
  • Spain, Barcelona – Airbus A320ceo, Boeing 737 MAX, Airbus A320ceo/neo (soon ready for training)
  • Vietnam, Hoh Chi Minh – 1 Airbus A320ceo, 1 Airbus A320neo
  • China, Zhengzhou – Boeing 737NG

BAA Training has also ordered a number of FTD devices that, when used in combination with FFSs, will provide our customers with an opportunity to reduce costs or add more training hours without extending the budget, all in line with EASA regulation.

Having the above-listed simulators ensures pilots undergoing Type Rating and other courses at BAA Training in different locations receive quality training on the respective equipment.

In conclusion, various FSTDs simulate aircraft avionics, controls forces, instruments, sounds, etc., for pilots across multiple training programs and phases. Although FFSs surpass both FTDs and FNPTs by their capabilities, the latter can also be successfully incorporated into the training plan where appropriate and authorized by EASA, enabling both training providers and clients to be cost-efficient.

 

We use cookies and other similar technologies to help provide our Services, to advertise to you and to analyse how you use our Services and whether advertisements are being viewed. We also allow third parties to use tracking technologies for similar purposes. If you are using our Services via a browser you can restrict, block or remove cookies through your web browser settings. To learn more, Read More.

Necessary Cookies

Always enabled

These cookies are necessary for our website to function properly and cannot be switched off in our systems. They are usually only set in response to actions made by you which amount to a request for services, such as setting your privacy preferences, logging in or filling in forms or where they’re essential to provide you with a service you have requested. You cannot opt-out of these cookies. You can set your browser to block or alert you about these cookies, but if you do, some parts of the site will not then work. These cookies do not store any personally identifiable information.
Performance Cookies
These cookies allow us to count visits and traffic sources so we can measure and improve the performance of our site. They help us to know which pages are the most and least popular and see how visitors move around the site, which helps us optimize your experience. All information these cookies collect is aggregated and therefore anonymous. If you do not allow these cookies we will not be able to use your data in this way.
Targeting Cookies
These cookies may be set through our site by our advertising partners. They may be used by those companies to build a profile of your interests and show you relevant adverts on other sites. They do not store directly personal information but are based on uniquely identifying your browser and internet device. If you do not allow these cookies, you will experience less targeted advertising.
Save & Accept